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This article describes the situation of women on the European labour markets and the resulting consequences for occupational safety and health (OSH). Relevant European statistics provide an overview of female employment trends in Europe. The article includes an analysis of hazards and risks inherent in female-dominated work. There is a special focus on OSH risk factors among women of different ages.

Differences in working lives of women and men

Labour market participation

Women make up just over half of the EU population but are less represented among the working population[1]. Although female labour market participation has increased over the last decades, the employment rate of men (aged 15–64) remains higher. In 2022, the EU average employment rate was 80.0% for men and 69.3% for women. This means that across the EU, the gender employment gap was 10.7 percentage points (pp) in 2022, meaning that the proportion of men of working age in employment exceeded that of women by 10.7 pp. 

Table 1: Employment rates (%) for males and females (15–64 years), annual average 2010–2022

 Male (15 to 64 years)Female (15 to 64 years)
European Union - 27 countries (from 2020)73,474,180,060,763,069,3

Source: Eurostat[2]

The employment rate represents persons in employment as a percentage of the population that is of working age (15–64 years). In all EU Member States, female employment rates are lower than those for males, with large variations across the EU. In 2022, the lowest female employment rates were observed in Italy (55.0%) and Greece (55.9%). These countries also have the largest gender employment gaps (Italy 19.7 pp and Greece 21.0 pp). The countries with the smallest employment gender gaps are Lithuania (0.8 pp) and Finland (1.2 pp). Regardless, the gender employment gap in Europe is noticeably smaller than in the rest of the world. ILO figures[3] show that the global employment rate for women is just under 47% and for men at 72%. That means a gender employment gap of 25 pp. and in some regions this rises to more than 50 pp. 

The biggest barrier for women in paid work is the struggle to balance it with family responsibilities. Women are more likely to be involved in childcare and elderly care[3]

Table 2: Employment rates (%) for older female workers (55–64 years) and younger female workers (15–24 years), annual average 2010–2022

 From 15 to 24 yearsFrom 55 to 64 years
European Union - 27 countries (from 2020)29,328,332,336,045,156,2

Source: Eurostat[2]

Female employment rates by age group vary between the Member States (see Table 2). In 2022, the highest employment rate of young female workers (aged 15–24) was reported in the Netherlands (75.3%) followed by Denmark (56.3%). In comparison, Greece and Romania were, at around 15% in 2022, among the countries with the lowest employment rate of young female workers (table 2). Compared with the 2008 recession, the COVID-19 crisis has been more balanced in its employment loss impacts by gender, although the biggest impacts have been experienced by women working in low-paid services sectors[4]. Furthermore, the pandemic has also led to a general deterioration of work–life balance among workers in the EU with more women and men reporting work–life conflicts, but women who have to telework and care for small children appear to be struggling most[5].

Work arrangements

Three out of four part-time jobs in the EU are held by women. This share has declined over the past two decades, as the relative growth of men's share of part-time work has been slightly faster than that of women. Nevertheless, part-time work is still mainly done by women[6]. Part-time employment accounts for 27.8 % of employed women in 2022 versus 7.6 % of employed men[7]. More than 1 in 5 employed people were working part-time in the Netherlands (38.4 %), Austria (30.1 %), Germany (27.9 %), Belgium (23.0 %) and Denmark (20.9 %). The lowest shares were found in Bulgaria, Slovakia and Romania where less than 5 % of employed women work part-time[6].

For women, the choice to work part-time is linked to parenthood and childcare. In 2022, almost 1 in 3 of working women with children worked part-time (31.5%) compared to 20.2% among working women without children. For men, the opposite is true. Fewer working men with children worked part-time (4.9%) compared to men without children (7.2%). This reflects the traditionally unequal sharing of family responsibilities, as well as a lack of childcare support The share of women working part-time in the female employment was the highest for women with a low level of education and with children (41.6 %)[6].

Part-time work may have positive and negative effects. Besides the negative effects – that it might reduce career opportunities and lead to lower pensions – the scarcity of opportunities to work part-time (as can be observed in Bulgaria, Slovakia and Hungary) could be seen as an obstacle to ensuring work-life balance for both women and men. Family commitments are also the major reason for women engaging in part-time work in most of the Member States[8]. Part-time working women often have to face higher risks to their occupational safety and health because they tend to have fewer training opportunities and less control over their work. Their opportunities to participate in the company’s decision-making processes are more limited and they have less access to OSH preventive services[9].

Research shows that in the field of digital platform work, more men than women perform such work and that this difference becomes larger with the intensity of participation in digital platform work[10]. However, it is widely agreed upon that the proportion of women involved in digital platform work is steadily increasing over time. This trend has been further accelerated by the COVID-19 pandemic. According to a 2022 survey, the distribution of digital platform workers was reported to be more equal, with 58% men and 42% women[10]

In digital platform work, algorithmic management plays a significant role. Algorithms assume managerial functions but often provide limited or no transparency regarding the rules or principles they employ. As a result, information and power imbalances arise between the platform and the workers. Digital platform work is characterised by work arrangements, such as atypical working times, flexible work schedules, unconventional workplaces. 

Temporary work can be seen as a precarious form of employment in certain circumstances, and entering into a temporary contract can possibly have a negative impact on working conditions. In 2021 short-term temporary contracts were more common in female-dominated sectors such as education, health, and commerce and hospitality (data from European Working Conditions Telephone Survey 2021, EWCTS 2021). Overall, women are overall more likely to work as temporary employees than men (10% of women compared with 7% of men)[11].

Pay gap

Across the EU, women earn less per hour than men do overall[12]. In 2021, women's gross hourly earnings were on average 12.7 % below those of men. Across EU Member States, the gender pay gap varied by 20.7 pp, ranging from -0.2 % in Luxembourg to 20.5 % in Estonia. The gender pay gap declined by only 2.8 pp since 2010[13]. This data is for the so-called ‘unadjusted gender pay gap’, as it does not take into account all of the factors that have an impact on the gender pay gap, such as differences in education, labour market experience, hours worked, type of job, etc. 

The reasons for the gender pay gap are very complex. Of course, instances still occur of women being paid less for the same job than their male colleagues, but there are also other reasons that lead to unequal payment. Competences that are necessary for typically female jobs such as caring, sensitivity and compassion (e.g. for nurses) are often deemed to be female characteristics and therefore part of a woman’s character. It seems that these skills that are considered as female characteristics are not evaluated as professional skills that have to be learned, supported and trained. Women’s part-time work might also lead to fewer career opportunities, less-qualified work than when working full-time and, therefore, lower pay. Unfortunately, young women often work in jobs that are below their competences, and also accept less well-paid jobs, due to traditions and gender roles and with the aim of increasing their chances of employment[14]. The average gender pay gap in the European Union is lowest among young workers and tends to widen with age. The gender pay gap might increase with age as a result of the career interruptions women may experience during their working life[12] but also due to the lower salaries in typically female jobs. Last, but not least, the lower pensions received by women are influenced by the gender pay gap – as well as by other factors such as part time work, family leave and unpaid family care work. Women also tend to retire at an earlier age than men and earn less throughout their careers resulting in a gender pension gap of 27.1 pp in 2021. This means that women in the EU aged over 65 received a pension that was on average more than a quarter lower[15]. As a result, the risk of poverty or social exclusion in the EU is higher for women than for men (22.7 % compared with 20.4 % in 2022)[16].

The European Commission has undertaken a number of initiatives in this field as part of the Gender equality strategy 2020–2025. Among the key objectives of this strategy are closing gender gaps in the labour market, achieving equal participation across different sectors of the economy and addressing the gender pay gap[17]

Women in leadership positions – Vertical segregation

Vertical segregation describes the gender-related difference in female and male rates of employment in leadership positions. Compared to the overall female employment rate and taking into account that women tend to achieve better school-leaving qualifications than men it is surprising that the female rate of employment in leadership positions is still very low in Europe. In 2022 around 32.2 % of board members of the EU’s largest publicly listed companies were women compared to 30 % in 202115. Furthermore, less than 8% of top companies’ CEOs are women[18]These data cannot be explained by a lack of availability of skilled women with the ambition to lead but points to a phenomenon known as the ‘glass-ceiling’. The glass ceiling suggests that despite their qualifications, skills, and experience, women often face discriminatory practices, stereotypes or systemic barriers that impede their advancement beyond a certain level within an organisation.

The introduction of quota can be effective for supporting gender equality in leadership. In the EU several countries already implemented gender quotas for corporate boards. On average, in October 2022, women accounted for 38.3% of the board members of the largest listed companies in Member States with national binding quotas, compared to 31.4% in those with soft measures, and just 17.5% in those that have taken no action at all[19]. The EU already proposed legal action in 2012 to address the issue of the under-representation of women in corporate management. In December 2022, Directive (EU) 2022/2381 on improving the gender balance among directors of listed companies and related measures[20] was published. The Directive stipulates that large listed EU companies that do not meet the target of 40 % among non-executive board members or 33% among all directors of the under-represented sex by 30 June 2026 have to ensure fair and transparent selection procedures for the selection of candidates for board positions. The Directive supports the European Commission, EU Member States and other stakeholders in developing and implementing effective strategies to achieve balanced participation of women and men in decision-making[21].

Female dominated occupations – Horizontal segregation

Besides the before mentioned vertical segregation, the term horizontal segregation or occupational segregation describes the fact that more women and/or men undertake specific types of jobs. Men are overrepresented in production sectors including agriculture, manufacturing and construction and in occupations predominant in these sectors: skilled craft and agricultural workers, for example. Women are overrepresented in many service sectors, especially in public sector services such as education and healthcare and their share is even increasing. Sectors experiencing a decline in employment, such as agriculture and manufacturing, have witnessed a reduction in women's employment share. Industries that have traditionally been male-dominated have largely maintained their gender composition, including mining/quarrying, manufacturing, and transportation. Conversely, in service sectors where women have been better represented, there is a more noticeable trend towards women having a larger share of employment (data comparison between 1998 and 2019). This is particularly evident in sectors such as healthcare and education. Additionally, in public administration, there has been a notable increase of 7% increase in women's labour participation in the public administration, bringing their share closer to equal representation (48% in 2019)[6].

Migrant women’s working conditions

Migrants can be defined as people changing their residence to or from a given area (usually a country)[22]and migrant workers as workers born abroad, in contrast to native-born workers (defined as workers born in the country in which they are living)[1]The employment rate in 2022 for female non-EU citizens was 21.2 pp lower than for female nationals[23].

Migrant women’s labour market participation is correlated to motherhood. Migrants with children under the age of 5 are less likely to participate in the labour market than native-born women. This fact is highly significant because birth rates among third-country migrant women are higher than among native women[24] The authors use the term ‘double disadvantage’ for migrant women because they are both women and migrants. The high prevalence of involuntary part-time work and short-term working arrangements among migrant women is also considered a disadvantage[21] . Migrant female workers are concentrated in low-skilled occupations in sectors such as domestic work, catering, hotels and restaurants, agriculture and sex industries[25]

Negative health and safety outcomes for migrant workers, such as stress, are often caused by racial discrimination in combination with gender discrimination. Migrant female workers seem to be at a high risk of bullying and harassment. Migrant workers are more exposed than native workers to several organisational and psychosocial risk factors, including poorer contractual working conditions, worse pay conditions, less access to jobs, training or career development and less favourable working time arrangements. For example, migrants are more likely to have to work long hours or to work weekends and nights[1]

Hazards and risks of female-dominated work

Data from the Labour Force Survey indicates that in 2020, 10.3% of individuals between the ages of 15 and 64 reported experiencing work-related health issues in the 12 months preceding the survey. This represents a higher rate compared to 2013, which recorded a rate of 8.8%. However, it is significantly lower than the rate reported in 2007, which stood at 14.6%[26]. A more detailed analysis will show that the differences between female and male working conditions result in a difference between the hazards and risks that women and men are exposed to. The risk factors lead to different OSH outcomes amongst working women[27]. This section describes the prevalence, trends and nature of exposure to occupational risk factors such as dangerous substances, violence and harassment, psychosocial risks, musculoskeletal disorders and accidents for working women. 

Exposure to dangerous substances

Existing exposure limits for dangerous substances were established for the protection of all workers. Many of these limits were based on a predominantly male working population and on laboratory tests[28]. Although questions regarding the effects of occupational exposures on women are not new, female exposure to dangerous substances remains under-assessed[9]. Research is needed to explore women’s exposure to dangerous substances as a result of infectious materials and handling chemical substances that are predominantly used in female-dominated sectors such as the health-care and home care sector and other service sectors like cleaning, hairdressing and cosmetology, and new occupations in waste management, as well as for women working in male-dominated professions[9]. Many chemicals that are used in the workplace have not been evaluated with regard to reproductive toxicity. Their influence on hormonal effects, menstruation and the menopause must be analysed. There are also gender differences in the way some dangerous substances are metabolised or accumulate in the body. When assessing the risks of chemicals in the workplace, employers should take account gender issues and adapt work and preventive measures accordingly (e.g. selecting personal protective equipment suitable for women)[29].

Violence and harassment

Third-party violence occurs in particular sectors such as healthcare, social work, education, transport, public administration, defence and retail. Workers have direct contact with clients in these sectors, which have a high share of female workers. This is why it is suggested that women are victims of third-party violence more often than men. Another possible reason is the status of jobs that women do, which are often perceived as lower than the ones that men do. Violence is increasing in some occupations such as teaching, in which women make up 70% of the profession. Harassment occurs mostly in a ‘top down’ manner and is indirectly supported or hindered by aspects of workplace culture such as leadership style. Findings based on the EWCTS 2021 show that the share of women experiencing bullying, harassment, violence at work is higher than that of men (6,8% of women compared to 5,1% of men)[30]. Although unwanted sexual attention is rare, female workers are 3,6 times more likely to suffer from unwanted sexual attention than men[30]. Young women under the age of 30, women in white-collar occupations and women with fixed-term contracts or undertaking temporary agency work are especially at risk[9] . Third-party violence can have physical and psychological consequences, such as fear, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Harassment can result in long-term sick leave, displacement and even suicide. It also has an indirect effect on families and friends[31].

Psychosocial risks

Changes in work lead to a change in working demands and therefore also to a change in related stresses and strains. Work intensity has increased as a result of new technologies and the increase in service-sector work. Higher absenteeism and early retirement rates due to mental health problems are the consequences of increased work intensity. Major factors influencing women’s mental health include the effects of vertical and horizontal segregation, as well as the fact that women are still largely responsible for family care and struggle to balance this with working life (nearly half of part-time working women still work part-time because of family care (see above)). Vertical and horizontal segregation leads to an over-representation of women in low-paid jobs, lower status, and therefore less autonomy. One effect of lower pay is poverty, which may lead to chronic stress, as demonstrated by numerous scientific researchers[32].

A lower level of autonomy and fewer opportunities to organise work in an appropriate way, e.g. flexible working time opportunities, may lead to an imbalance between work and private life. Particularly those women who work in the care or service sector in a “typically female job” such as nursing that requires a high level of emotional work often have a very low level of autonomy. This may lead to greater emotional dissonance because their actions cannot be in accordance with their own emotions and values[33] [34].

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs)

The Labour Force Survey (2020) indicates that MSDs are reported almost equally by men and women. 5.9% of male workers reported MSDs compared to 6% of female workers[35]. According to the EU-OSHA report on workforce diversity and MSDs (2020)[1], women workers are less often involved in heavy labour or physically demanding work but they are more frequently exposed to other MSD-related physical risks including lifting, handling or moving (resisting) persons, repetitive movements at work, awkward, forced or tiring postures and prolonged static standing or sitting, all of which are often directly related to the prevalence of MSDs[1]. Prolonged standing is a characteristic of work in the health-care sector, hotels and catering, education, retail and cleaning, all of which have a high proportion of female workers. MSDs are also caused by prolonged sitting and VDU work. MSDs emerging from static work, prolonged standing and prolonged sitting affect women more than they do men. One reason for the higher prevalence of symptoms among women is that more women than men work in administrative occupations such as the public service and office jobs[9]


Female occupational accident rates are lower than male accident rates. In 2020, men were involved in more than two in three (66.5%) non-fatal workplace accidents in the EU. In 2019, the difference was slightly larger (68.3%). Factors influencing these statistics include the proportion of men and women in employment, the type of work men and women do and the sectors in which they work. For example, many more accidents happen in mining, manufacturing or construction, which tend to be male-dominated. However, in 2020, the number of accidents recorded in activities related to human health and home care, which are generally dominated by women, increased[36].

Most non-fatal accidents, both for men and women, are caused by physical or mental stress or by an impact with a stationary object (in other words, the victim was in motion). The biggest difference between causes is for contact with sharp, pointed, rough object. Women are far less likely to be involved in such an accident (table 3). Women’s accidents are related to the sectors in which they work. The high proportion of women in public administration, education, health care and other services accounts for accidents involving office equipment, personal and sports equipment, weapons, domestic appliances, living organisms and human beings. Female accident rates were highest in sectors such as ‘agriculture, hunting and forestry’, ‘hotels and restaurants’ and ‘health and social work’[9]

Table 3: Non-fatal accidents at work by sex and contact mode of injury (2020)

Physical or mental stress 22,7623,64
Horizontal or vertical impact with or against a stationary object (the victim is in motion) 20,2722,96
Contact with electrical voltage, temperature, hazardous substances 4,2912,71
Contact with sharp, pointed, rough, coarse material agent 17,578,66
Struck by object in motion, collision with 13,557,34
Trapped, crushed, etc. 7,724,14
Bite, kick, etc. (animal or human) 1,753,34
Drowned, buried, enveloped 0,070,05

Source: Eurostat[37]


OSH risk factors among women of different ages

The sectors in which women are typically employed depend strongly on their age. Therefore, women of different ages are exposed to different OSH risk factors. On average, more young women work in hospitality and retail than older women. Older women tend more to work in health care and education[9]. The employment rate of older women (aged 55-64) has significantly increased between 2004 and 2019 from 28% to 52.6 % [38]. In addition to the age distribution of women across certain jobs, women of different ages react differently to certain working environments, working conditions and tasks. At different stages of life, women require distinctive measures to protect their physical and mental health. 
OSH risk factors vary between women of different ages, but age-related research into women’s OSH is limited. An exception can only be made for pregnant women. Pregnant women are at a stage of life that necessitates specific provisions, which are also determined by legislation. 
In order to analyse specific OSH risk factors for women at different ages, it is important to differentiate between the sectors they work in. Young women (aged 15–24) tend to work in sectors such as retail, health and social work, hotels and restaurants, and catering. In many cases, this occupation requires prolonged standing or sitting. Prolonged sitting and standing are considered to be risk factors for MSDs[9]. Another risk factor for MSDs stems from women’s occupation in the health and social care sector, where many women work as domestic helpers, personal care workers. Nurses, in particular, are required to move patients. Handling patients is also a risk factor for MSDs. However, working in the health-care sector is associated with a wide range of risk factors such as exposure to biological agents and chemical substances, physical risks and psychological risks, which may occur as a result of violence or shift work. Working conditions in HORECA are often characterised by irregular working hours, low pay and temporary employment. OSH risk factors range from heavy workloads, prolonged standing and static postures that could lead to MSDs, to customer contact that might lead to psychosocial stress, harassment and violence, and to evening and weekend working hours that might affect work life balance. It can be stated that young people lack skills, training and physical or psychological maturity, and often are not aware of their rights and the employers’ duties or lack the confidence to complain. 
OSH education should start at a very young age, and the transition from school to work must be accompanied by education on relevant OSH risks and corresponding prevention measures. Action at an early stage of working life is crucial because that is when young women develop their work orientation and future health risks can be avoided. It is important to facilitate the reconciliation of paid work and family commitments in order to support the work orientation of young women and their decision regarding the extent to which and under what conditions they want to participate in the labour market. Greater difficulties for young women to find an adequate job add to their willingness to accept worse conditions. 

To address women of different ages and meet their requirements, it is necessary for any kind of prevention or intervention measures to be based on their specific needs. Measures must be group-specific and tailored in order to achieve the greatest effect. Consultation of female workers of different age groups with different occupations in different sectors is needed with regard to gender sensitive risk assessment. Further information on gender and OSH policy and practice can be found in the OSHwiki article Women at Work: An Introduction and in the EU-OSHA publications on this topic[39]


[1] EU-OSHA – European Agency for Safety and Health at Work. Workforce diversity and musculoskeletal disorders: review of facts and figures and examples. Report, 2020. Available at:

[2] Eurostat. Databrowser. Employment and activity by sex and age - annual data (lfsi_emp_a). Available at:

[3] ILO. Infostories. The gender gap in employment: What's holding women back? Published in December 2017, Updated in February 2022. Available at:

[4] Eurofound. Gender equality in the EU. Infographic, March 2022. Available at:

[5] Eurofound. COVID-19 fallout takes a higher toll on women, economically and domestically. Blog, 3 June 2020. Available at:

[6] Eurofound and European Commission Joint Research Centre, European Jobs Monitor 2021: Gender gaps and the employment structure, European Jobs Monitor series, 2021. Available at:

[7] Eurostat. Part-time and full-time employment. Statistics explained, May 2023. Available at:

[8] Eurofound – European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions - Sandor, E. ‘European Company Survey 2009, Part-time work in Europe’, Publication Office of the European Union, Luxemburg 2011. Available at:

[9] EU-OSHA, New risks and trends in the safety and health of women at work. European Risk Observatory. Literature review. Report, 2013. Available at:

[10] EU-OSHA – European Agency for Safety and Health at Work. Workforce diversity and digital labour platforms: implications for occupational safety and health. Discussion paper, 2023. Available at:

[11] Eurofound. Working conditions in the time of COVID-19: Implications for the future, European Working Conditions Telephone Survey 2021 series, 2022. Available at:

[12] Eurostat. Gender pay gap statistics. Statistics explained, March 2023. Available at: 

[14] Pimminger, I., Agentur für Gleichstellung im ESF, Junge Frauen und Männer im Übergang von der Schule in den Beruf, Berlin, 2013. Available at:

[16] Eurostat. Living conditions in Europe - poverty and social exclusion. Statistics explained, June 2023. Available at:

[19] European Commission. Gender Balance on Corporate Boards. Factsheet, November 2022. Available at:

[20] Directive (EU) 2022/2381 on improving the gender balance among directors of listed companies and related measures. Available at:

[23] Eurostat. Migrant integration statistics – labour market indicators. Statistics explained, May 2023; Available at:–_labour_market_indicators

[24] Rubin, J., Rendall, M.S., Rabinovich, L., Tsang, F., van Oranje-Nassau, C.,Janta, B.,‘Migrant women in the European labour force. Current situation and future prospects’, 2008. Available at:

[25] Kontos, M. (ed.) ‘Integration of Female Immigrants in Labour Market and Society. A Comparative Analysis, 2009.

[26] Eurostat, Statistics explained, Self-reported work-related health problems and risk factors - key statistics. Available at:

[27] EU-OSHA – European Agency for Safety and Health at Work. Gender issues in safety and health at work, Summary of an Agency report. Facts, No. 42. 2003. Available at:

[28] ILO - International Labour Organization, Providing safe and healthy workplaces for both women and men, 2009. Available at:

[29] EU-OSHA – European Agency for Safety and Health at Work. Vulnerable workers and dangerous substances. Info sheet, 2019. Available at:

[30] Eurofound, Violence in the workplace: Women and frontline workers face higher risks. 27 February 2023. Available at:

[31] EU-OSHA - European Agency for Safety and Health at Work. Workplace Violence and Harassment: a European Picture, European Risk Observatory Literature Review. Report, 2010. Available at:

[32] Lampert, Th.; , Anke-Christine Saß, A._Ch.; , Häfelinger, M:, Ziese, Th.`Beiträge zurGesundheitsberichterstattungdes BundesArmut, soziale Ungleichheitund Gesundheit Expertise des Robert Koch-Instituts zum2. Armuts- und Reichtumsbericht der Bundesregierung`, 2005

[33] Nerdinger; F.W., Emotionsarbeit im Dienstleistungsbereich,Report Psychologie, 37, 1/2012.

[34] Hochschild, A., ‘Emotion work, feeling rules and social structure’, American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 85, No 3, 1979, pp. 555-571

[35] Eurostat. Data browser. Labour Force Survey. Persons reporting a work-related health problem by sex, age and type of problem (hsw_pb5). Available at:

[36] Eurostat. Accidents at work statistics. Statistics explained, October 2022. Available at:

[37] Eurostat. Accidents at work by sex, age, severity, NACE Rev. 2 activity and contact mode of injury ((hsw_ph3_08). Data browser. Available at:

[38] Eurostat, Active ageing and solidarity between generations, A statistical portrait of the European Union 2012, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 2012b.

[39] EU-OSHA – European Agency for Safety and Health at Work.: Publications on Women and OSH. Available at:

Further reading

EU-OSHA – European Agency for Safety and Health at Work. Workforce diversity and musculoskeletal disorders: review of facts and figures and examples. Report, 2020. Available at:

EU-OSHA – European Agency for Safety and Health at Work. Workforce diversity and digital labour platforms: implications for occupational safety and health. Discussion paper, 2023. Available at:

EU-OSHA, New risks and trends in the safety and health of women at work. European Risk Observatory. Literature review. 2013. Available at: 

Eurofound and European Commission Joint Research Centre (2021), European Jobs Monitor 2021: Gender gaps and the employment structure, European Jobs Monitor series, 2021. Available at:

European Commission. Gender equality strategy. Webpage. Available at:

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Taina Paakkonen

Corinna Sinkowicz

Corinna Weber

Karla Van den Broek

Prevent, Belgium