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Biological monitoring (biomonitoring) in occupational safety and health is the detection of substances (biomarkers) in biological samples of workers, compared to reference values. This article is limited to chemical exposures. Biomonitoring can help in…
This summary report presents the foundations of a data-driven methodology, established to assess exposure to dangerous substances within EU workplaces and to provide a basis for monitoring trends and developments in exposure and use. It summarises the…
Gases and vapours are commonly encountered in the workplace at normal atmospheric pressure or elevated pressure. They arise from very many industrial processes. Generally, vapours are produced through evaporation of volatile liquids. The risks they…
Too often, measures to control workers’ exposure to dangerous substances are taken on an ‘ad-hoc’ basis. Existing processes, procedures and routines are taken for granted, and ‘end-of-pipe’ solutions are installed. In many cases, one relies on the use of…
Air monitoring can be either periodic or continuous and is the quantitative or qualitative assessment of the extent of pollutants in or around the workplace. It is used to ensure compliance with appropriate legislation and to evaluate control measures.…
REACH is the European chemical legislation, which has been described as the most important EU legislation for 20 years.REACH is the new European Union legislation applying to chemical substances, and its aim is to improve the protection of human health…
The European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA) defines dangerous substances as ‘any liquid, gas or solid that poses a risk to workers’ health or safety’.[1] Risk assessment for these can be a complicated issue for employers. Many, especially…
This article is an overview on the content, use and legal context of Safety Data Sheets (SDS). Safety Data Sheets are a key element for information on chemical substances and mixtures. They are especially relevant in the context of employers´ risk…
Substitution means replacing hazardous chemicals with safer alternatives. It is at the top of the hierarchy of control measures applied to substances. Substitution, however, does not only apply to chemicals, it has been a general legal provision for over…