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EU-OSHA defines psychosocial risks as arising from ‘poor work design, organisation and management, as well as from poor social context of work, which may result in negative psychological, physical and social outcomes[1]. Eurofound use a similar definition; working conditions leading to psychosocial risks include excessive workloads, lack of control over work, bullying or harassment, working with difficult members of the public, emotionally demanding work, and broader issues, such as job insecurity[2]

Journalists[3] can be involved in covering a range of news events and stories including murders, car crashes, wars, abuse, political unrest, entertainment, and sport. Interacting with people is a key part of the role and leaves the journalist vulnerable to psychosocial risks which can impact on their mental and physical health and wellbeing, and cause illness and absence from work. 

This article gives an overview of the extent of the problem, what the psychosocial risk factors are, specific feedback from journalists and practical solutions that employers and individuals can take to help reduce the risk.

Who are journalists?

The role of the journalist has evolved since the 18th century, when newspapers and magazines were the primary medium for journalists to get information to the public, followed by radio and television in the 20th century, and the internet in the 21st century[4]. According to the Open Risk Manual, journalists are those who research, verify, and write news stories for newspapers, magazines, television stations, and other broadcast media. They cover political, economic, cultural, social and sport events. They must conform to ethical codes such as freedom of speech and right of reply, press law, and editorial standards to bring objective information[5].

Journalists include editors, reporters, sub editors and tv/ radio news producers. Related occupations include public relations officers, authors, book editors, website editors, social media officers, photojournalists, camera operators, presenters, web designers, researchers and content moderators. As the role of journalism evolves in line with advancing technology, the issue of what is journalists work is also debatable, with “online influencers” also being considered as journalists[6].

A rewarding career

“To work as a journalist you need a curious mind”, quote by newsroom journalist.

Journalism can be a very rewarding career and allows people with a natural curiosity in life and people to develop their writing and communication skills. It can also be a great way to make a difference in the world by informing the public about important issues. Many journalists are exposed to variety of different topics and get to learn more about current events and travel to different locations to report on them[7]. It can also offer flexibility with working hours, working from home opportunities and the potential for better work life balance. On the opposite side of this, journalists who work for themselves as freelancers often report isolation as a challenge, which is why maintaining social contact and engaging with colleagues, in person, or virtually through online communities can be helpful[8].

Numbers employed

According to Eurostat[9],  in 2019, there were almost 0.4 million journalists in the 27 EU Member States, representing 0.2% of total EU employment. In terms of economic activity activities associated with journalism, 1.1 million were employed in the 27 EU Member States in publishing activities, such as books, newspapers, magazines and journals, which is equivalent to 0.5% of total EU employment. 

Research on the extent of the problem

Data from the ESENER (European Survey of Enterprises on New and Emerging Risks)[10] shows that psychosocial risk factors are widespread. Having to deal with difficult people and pressure due to time constraints are two of the most common issues. Journalists are also impacted by other specific issues, which is highlighted by the surveys below.

Working hours and pay

Journalism is known for creating a high emotional load and pressurised work conditions[11]. The disruption caused by the digital transition is also a real concern, with many in fear of their jobs being replaced by Artificial Intelligence (AI). Cost reduction measures have become a familiar ‘ask’ of staff, including pay freezes and salary reductions[12].

Working hours and pay are also issues, which was highlighted in an Ireland pay survey of 360 journalists completed in Ireland in 2022, by the National Union of Journalists. The survey showed that 70% of respondents had to take on extra duties and responsibilities in the past five years, with most respondents confirming they did not receive a commensurate pay increase or rise in income for this work. Up to 30% had to take on non-journalistic work to make ends meet, and 40% of journalists said they had considered leaving journalism for a better paid profession 


Other issues highlighted by a Dublin City University report in Ireland, ‘Irish Journalists at Work, values, roles & influences’ in 2023, found that 25% of respondents had experienced online violence over the previous five years, 21% had experienced hateful speech, and 19% had experienced public discrediting of their work. On the topic of stress, 58% said they have felt stressed in their work. This study is part of wider international research project of 120 countries, to assess the state of journalism across the world, with results due to be published in 2025[13].

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

Post-traumatic stress disorder can develop after exposure to stressful, frightening, or distressing event, or after a prolonged traumatic experience. Journalists can experience vicarious trauma by interviewing survivors of trauma, hearing distressing testimony or encountering violent scenes or images. An American study measuring the impact that covering war has on journalists revealed that the lifetime prevalence of PTSD in war journalists was 28.6%, and the rate of depression was 21.4%[14].

Another survey of photojournalists found that the vast majority of photojournalists covered traumatic events, but only 11% had been advised of the potential emotional impact of the job by their employer, and only 25% had been offered counselling[15].

Third Party violence

Journalists are at risk of third party work-related violence. Research commissioned by PersVeilig on 689 journalists in 2021, in the Netherlands, showed that 82% of journalists had encountered aggression and threats in 2021. The survey revealed that cameramen and photojournalists are most likely to experience it, and verbal aggression is encountered most often[16].

A survey by the National Union of Journalists in 2020 which had over 300 respondents, showed that 27% had experienced physical threats including “ knife held to my throat, punched, pushed or kicked, assaulted and equipment damaged”[17].

Online third-party violence and gender

The subject of online harassment and targeting of journalists is also becoming more common. A 2020 National Union of Journalists survey (of male and female journalists) in the UK found that 78% of journalists agreed that harassment is “normalised and seen as part of the job”, with half (51%) experiencing online abuse in the past year[17].

Gender is also relevant, with a 2022 Dutch survey of female journalists and security finding that 82% of female journalists experienced aggression, intimidation and threats when doing their jobs. Half said it had increased strongly over the last 5 years . The survey also found that over half (54%) of female journalists experience online verbal aggression, and that a quarter of females thought it affected their mental health[18].

Up to 3% of women journalists from 125 countries said they experienced “online violence” at work, according to a 2020 survey by Unesco/International Center for Journalists; 30% said they self-censored on social media, and 20% had withdrawn from all online interaction[19].

A 2022 UK survey found that almost half of women journalists said they promoted their work less online to minimise the risk of attracting unwanted attention, and almost one in five (18%) said the negativity they encountered had made them consider leaving the media industry altogether. Overall, three-quarters had been threatened or felt unsafe[19] .

Role of the employer

The EU Framework Directive (89/391/EEC), implemented in national laws, places a legal obligation on EU employers to protect their employees, by avoiding, assessing and combating risks to their safety and health, which includes freelance staff and temporary staff ( if they have a contract of employment). In Ireland employers also must cover risks to third parties that could be affected by their activities. Psychosocial risks, including work related stress, harassment and violence at work are covered by these legal requirements[20].

In order to meet their obligations, employers should carry out a risk assessment of any psychosocial risk factors and provide adequate training and supervision to workers. The risk assessment should be documented and completed in co-operation with workers[21].

What are the psychosocial risk factors?

Psychosocial risk factors can be categorised into six key areas, which if not properly managed, are associated with poor health, lower productivity, and absence from work due to sickness according to the UK HSE’s work-related stress management approach[22].  A seventh has been added to this list, which is particularly relevant to journalists, that is third party violence.

 6 key areasWhat it includesRelevance to Journalists
1DemandsWorkload, work patterns, work environment.Journalists often work on multiple stories with tight deadlines which can lead to feeling of excessive pressure.
2ControlHow much say the person has in the way they do their work, flexibility on working time.Having a level of control over their work allows the journalist to respond and prioritise their work as news events/ stories arise.
3SupportEncouragement, support, communication and resources provided by the organisation, management and colleagues.Journalists who work alone and those who work in teams, need to know where to get support and who to ask for help. Job security and financial worries can also be a concern. Female journalists and minority groups can be more vulnerable.
4RelationshipsPositive working relationships to avoid conflict and dealing with unacceptable behaviour.Bullying and harassment can happen in a busy newsroom. Sexual harassment can also occur.
5RoleClear understanding of role, no conflicting roles.Journalists need to have a clear understanding of what their editor/ manager expects, what angle the story is from, and guidelines on what is expected with the finished product.
6ChangeHow organisational change is managed.Digital transformation, Artificial Intelligence (AI) and remote working are changing how journalists work which needs to be managed to reduce stress and anxiety.
7Third Party ViolenceViolence and aggression from members of the public.Journalists can experience threats to their physical safety, be assaulted or killed during day to day reporting work, and when working in areas of conflict. Online abuse on social media is also a concern.


Working time and work intensity

Working time and intensity are highlighted as key risk factors in Eurofound’s 2023 research report on psychosocial risks to worker’s well-being. It states that high work intensity involves regularly working at high speed or to tight deadlines. According to this research, high work intensity, a heavy workload, high time pressure and work overload have been proven to be strongly related to stress and burnout, as well as a wide range of physical issues (diabetes, depression and cardiovascular disease)[23].

Feedback from journalists

Feedback from journalists as part of the research for this article suggests that “speed and accuracy” have become a key part of journalistic work. One newsroom journalist told the author of this article, “if you can’t write fast”, it is difficult to survive in this industry. Others commented that in busy newsrooms, the deadline is no longer a few hours or days away, “the deadline is now”.

There are also not just print copies and websites to manage, now there is an expectation that multiple media channels are constantly updated, such as TikTok and Instagram

“There can be pressure on journalists to update online platforms as fast as possible, even as the story is unfolding in real time, and to get their story out before a competitor does”.

Long work hours, weekend work, and antisocial hours are also common for many journalists. “It can be hard to have a normal life, and it is even more difficult to switch off, when on a day off”

Many journalists have access to work emails and messages on their phones and find it difficult to not look at these when they receive a notification from their device. 

If an email or message comes in from my manager, I feel I have to look at it”, 

“If it’s an important story that I have been working on, or that is time sensitive, I feel that I have to respond or deal with it even if I am meant to be off work that day”, 

There is a fear of “missing a story”.

Practical solutions

According to the UK Health and Safety Executive ‘Tackling work-related stress using the Management Standards Approach’, managing employee workloads can be helped by having regular meetings with either the team or individuals to check in with them on their workload and any expected challenges. They also suggest being aware of what hours employees are working, so that they can offer support (a day off or time in lieu) if the employee is working longer hours or more irregular hours than usual. 

Some journalists suggested that it is helpful when managers communicate clearly with their employees that there is no expectation on them to respond or follow up on emails or messages when they are not officially working and to set an example by following this rule themselves.  Managers could also ask employees to turn off/ mute any devices which send work notifications on their days off, and to have a conversation with their employees regularly asking them “how is your workload?”.


Control over the work and how and where it is done

Having a certain level of control over how work is organised and undertaken, and how decisions are made can help employees cope with the demands of their job[22].  It can reduce stress, enhance motivation and growth as well as improving morale and a person’s ability to manage their workload[24]. When workers with high demands have more control over how the work is done, their stress level is lower. Journalists, who typically have high work demands, need the flexibility to plan and adjust their own work in line with breaking news stories, or events, as well as developing their own skills, and being allowed to be creative and show initiative. 

Feedback from journalists

One experienced newsroom journalist said, “journalists need to be adaptable and flexible”, as stories can break unexpectedly and suddenly. 

They may have to change what they are working on if another story happens which is more urgent and time sensitive. 

Others commented that some journalists appreciate direction from their editor/ manager when it comes to developing and writing an article, so they are clear what the expectations are. Ultimately, feedback suggests that journalists need a certain level of autonomy to get on with writing/ producing their work, and value input and suggestions from others when they ask for help.

Practical solutions

Ways to improve how workers have control over their work include having systems in place so that staff have a say over the way their work is organised e.g., through meetings or one to ones or performance reviews[22]. It is also helpful to discuss how decisions are made and ask how it can be improved. The relationship between the editor/ manager and the journalist is also important, as if there is trust between them, it will allow the editor to give more control to the journalist when doing the work[25]. Encouraging initiative, opportunities for upskilling, and flexibility with annual leave or taking breaks can also help reduce stress.


Praise and feedback

Support includes good communication, encouragement, praise, acknowledging work well done and providing resources to support someone in their role. Employees who receive adequate information and support from colleagues and superiors are less likely to become overwhelmed or feel stressed due to their work[22]. 

Job security

Job insecurity is a significant stressor in the workplace. Evidence shows that job insecurity is linked to employee’s health and well-being. Employees who worry about the continuation of their jobs report stress, burnout, and depression to a greater extent[23]. As many media employers have cut staff, to cut costs, it can often be that those who are left behind who are expected to pick up the work of their absent colleagues. There is also the threat that they too may lose their job and be unable to make ends meet. 

Some journalists may feel more secure when they work for a publicly funded media organisation as opposed to a privately funded employer, although others believe freelance work can be more lucrative and offer more flexibility. 

Those who work in freelance roles can also be more vulnerable. Many have to spend significant time developing a proposal for an article/ feature/ production which they ‘pitch’ to a media organisation, in the hope it will be accepted, and rejections or none replies are common. Rates of pay for this work can vary, and in the UK the National Union of Journalists (NUJ) have raised concerns over the downward trend in pay for freelance work. As demand for freelance work can vary, journalists may feel they cannot turn down any work, even if it is not entirely what they had planned for, or else they may be faced with periods of unemployment.

The unemployment rate for black, minority and ethnic workers is also a concern, and currently more than double that of white workers. Black and minority ethnic women face an even bigger penalty with unemployment rates nearly three times higher than white women[26].

Feedback from journalists

“There are loads of benefits to being a staff journalist, namely job security. I can make far better income as a freelance journalist than staff journalists, the endless rhetoric of job cuts or layoffs or resources being depleted hasn’t been a pleasant environment to be in”. 

There are wellbeing initiatives in my workplace, but I am too busy to avail of them”.

Others suggested when you work with colleagues who share information, ideas and contact details of people whose input is needed for a story, it can save time and improve productivity.

Practical solutions

Organisations should have an effective workplace policy which identifies what the psychosocial risk factors are and what supports are available to employees. For example, a policy on the prevention of stress in the workplace and a psychosocial risk assessment as well as details on any employee health or wellbeing initiatives, including Employee Assistance Programmes (EAPs).

Managers could encourage employees to share contacts for stories, so that a journalist can follow up on a story easier and quicker. If someone has worked on a topic or issue in the past, they could suggest that person has a conversation with someone who may be new to the topic. 


Positive workplace relationships promote better working together and minimise the risk of bullying and unacceptable behaviour[22]. Managers and colleagues who support each other can encourage better morale and good teamwork. Building relationships can be more challenging with remote working, and can contribute to feelings of isolation and loneliness.


Bullying can involve verbal and physical attacks, as well as more subtle acts like devaluation of a colleague’s work or social isolation. Bullying can be through the use of online communication – emails, messaging apps, during online meetings and via social network sites[27].

For victims of bullying, the consequences can be significant, including stress, depression, reduced self-esteem, self-blame, and sleep disturbances[28].

Journalists feedback

With regard to remote work, feedback suggests that some journalists find it more difficult than others, when remote working from their colleagues.

Managers should encourage the use of messaging apps such as Slack, to make communication easier”

“Having agreed anchor days in the office, where all of my team are in is really helpful”

 “I need to be around my work colleagues so that we can bounce ideas off each other, I don’t like going into an empty newsroom”.

“A lot of bullying doesn’t get reported, freelance staff are afraid to report it in case they don’t get more work, and permanent staff are afraid to report it in case they don’t get promoted”.

Practical solutions


Organisations should develop a written policy for remote work detailing expectations on anchor days and communication. There should also be a policy on dealing with unacceptable behaviour e.g., bullying or harassment, as well as having grievance and disciplinary procedures. There should be clearly communicated procedures on how to deal with and report unacceptable behaviour[19].  Unacceptable behaviour can include journalists being “attacked” online for expressing their views or opinions by colleagues or others, and organisational guidelines or rules on social media use and dignity and respect should be clearly communicated to all employees.


Journalists can work in a variety of workplaces, including book publishers or large media organisations. Many also are self-employed as freelances, which means they may work alone, and for others remote working from home or away from an office environment has become part of their normal routine, especially since the Covid 19 pandemic. According to EU-OSHA, remote work can enable a better work life balance because of reduced commuting time to the office, or ability to manage working hours better but it can also lead to longer working hours and social isolation[29]. The risks must be managed for it to be beneficial. Regular contact with managers/ colleagues and opportunities to meet in person can reduce the risk.

Building networks

For freelance journalists who are not directly employed, building informal networks can be valuable. There are free groups available to join on Facebook, as well as online communities (refer to further information section).


It is essential that journalists understand their role, when employed within an organisation, and that it does not overlap or conflict with other roles[19].

Journalists need to be clear on what is expected of them in their role. They should be encouraged to talk to their manager if they are unclear what their priorities are. Many journalists are now expected to maintain a strong online presence as a matter of routine, in addition to publishing their written work. This can require additional skills and training.

Freelance journalists who pitch publishers with an idea for an article or piece of work, ideally should receive a commission outlining what has been agreed, including the topic, who is to be interviewed, the wordcount and the agreed payment. Lack of clarity at this stage can lead to confusion, doubt and a journalist not understanding what is expected of them.

Journalists feedback

Journalists now need to be able to adapt to all types of media. 

“Multimedia journalists who can use all communication channels not just print form, are crucial”

Practical Solutions

Managers should hold team meetings with staff to plan out what work is to be done, by whom and within what timeframe. Regular one to one meetings can also be helpful to ensure individual journalists are on target with their work, or to check in if they need any support or guidance[19]. Additional skills training may be needed to promote work on all the available online media channels.


Managing change (large or small) introduced by employers should be done in a way where staff are informed and understand what is happening, and why it is happening. This is crucial to reduce the impact of stress and anxiety on staff [19]. Workers should be consulted about any changes e.g., downsizing or new working methods, and upskilling or re-training offered as part of managing these changes. 

In the context of journalistic work, change has been happening at a rapid rate. In 2011, two American academics, Robert W. McChesney and Victor Pickard, edited a book with the provocative title ‘Will the last reporter please turn out the lights: the collapse of journalism and what can be done to fix it’. Summarising the collapse of journalism in America, this crisis scenario has extended across the world, with declines in newspaper sales, coupled with the arrival of new social media platforms. The transition to digital media has also been a powerful change, with Artificial Intelligence (AI) now one of the main catalysts for further change[10]

Technology - Artificial Intelligence (AI)

One of the key developments in technology which poses both opportunities and threats to the role of journalists, is Artificial Intelligence (AI). The introduction of Artificial Intelligence (AI), in particular chat GPT means that articles and stories can now be written quickly and cheaply for minimal cost. 

ChatGPT recorded over a million users from November 2022 to January 2023, and whilst useful for generating content and images, it also presents a threat to the role of journalists, with many fearing being replaced by AI. There are also concerns over the ownership of AI generated images and content[12], the risks posed by large language models (LLMS) through unlawful plagiarism of copyright content and journalists not being compensated by technology firms for using their material without permission.

Disinformation and fake news

Information is now freely available for multiple sources, including the internet and social media platforms, such as X (formerly Twitter), Instagram, Facebook, Tik Tok and more. The challenge of “fake new” is also an issue, and journalists often must compete with sources of information which provide false or misleading information. 

Continuously being on

There is also the challenge of continuously being on, with access to devices such as smartphones, androids, tablets, and digital communication technologies presenting a challenge as it is more difficult for the journalist to switch off at the end of their day[30]

Exposure to sensitive content

Journalists can be exposed to text, pictures, graphs, illustrations, photographs, video clips and disturbing or sensitive content in the course of their work, for example, violent deaths, court proceedings, child abuse/ pornography. This can lead to symptoms of trauma, including sleep disturbances and negative coping mechanisms – smoking, drinking, acting out.

Journalists feedback

“People think they have the right to abuse journalists online”

“Artificial Intelligence (AI) is already replacing some journalists jobs”

Practical Solutions


When introducing new technology, employees should be included in the design stage of the technology, and upskilled so that they feel confident to engage with it. 

Disinformation and fake news

Many journalists are required to follow their own organisation’s internal guidelines, to ensure the accuracy of their reporting, that information is fact checked, and that they are mindful of bogus accounts, fake news, hoaxes and spooks. Information from websites or social media streams should be checked before using it.

Continuously being on - Right to disconnect

The right to a better work life balance and to be able to disconnect is seen as important to support employees to disengage from work, and work-related electronic communications outside of working hours, and several countries have put legislation into place to allow employees to disconnect, including Belgium, Ireland and Portugal[31]

Since the Covid-19 pandemic, permanent legislation has also been passed on telework in many EU countries[32]. For example, in Ireland, the legal right to request remote work was implemented in March 2024, along with a Code of Practice for Employers and Employees on the Right to Request Flexible Working and the Right to Request Remote Working[33]. Workers, including journalists, should have the right to disconnect. Employers should have a right to disconnect policy that is respected. 

Exposure to sensitive content

Journalists should avoid handling, viewing or processing disturbing or sensitive content where possible. Where it cannot be avoided, they should be provided with training on coping and resilience, and they should notify their manager if they are experiencing any psychological difficulties from viewing the content.

Third party violence

Third party work-related violence 

Third party violence from members of the public, and when dealing with people outside of an organisation is an issue, especially when working as a journalist in war zones and areas of conflict. In 2023,120 journalists and media workers, including 11 women were killed according to the International Federation of Journalists[34]. It is also a concern for journalists in their day-to-day work, and journalists should be trained on how to deal with the public and unexpected risks.

Online harassment and abuse is also a growing concern for journalists, in particular females. Many journalists have their own line social media accounts, for example Instagram, Facebook, Twitter, Tik Tok, all of which are vulnerable to messages or content which are critical or crudely expressed.

Journalists Feedback

“I am always aware of my surroundings when following up on a story, where the escape routes are, if there is Close Circuit Television (CCTV) in operation”

“I always let someone know where I am going, if I don’t feel an area is safe”

Practical Solutions

Employers should have a policy covering all aspects – avoiding lone working based on risk assessment, rules for reporting incidents or near incidents, how support will be provided if an incident occurs. Procedures should be in place to report incidents, and to access any support service, including the police where required. Ireland is an example of a country who have implemented an initiative to support journalists on reporting and managing violent incidents, where incidents are reported to An Garda Síochána.

Training for journalists on how to deal with aggressive or intimidating behaviour, how to protect their own safety, and how to report any incidents which occur is important, for their day-to-day work, and for situations which are potentially hostile. 

A report by the International Federation of Journalists (IFJ) suggests that journalists need training in physical security, first aid, information and digital security as well as psychological sessions, lectures and workshops on countering propaganda and the challenges related to artificial intelligence[35].

The employers’ third-party violence policy should include online harassment and abuse. Organisations should provide training to journalists on how to protect themselves when posting on their own social media accounts and what to do if they are subject to abuse or feel threatened. 

Pen America has published best practice for media employers. It explains how to take an organisational approach based on risk assessment. Individual measures include having a policy on headline writing (avoid inflammatory headlines,) and when the public can provide comments. The employer can publicly support targeted journalists, and it is easier for an organisation than an individual to report incidents to social media organisations. It is also possible for a colleague to temporarily monitor the account of another to block and delete any offensive posts, in order to give the person a break.

Case study on Ireland’s response to dealing with journalists’ physical safety

In 2022, responding to a request from media representatives, An Garda Síochána established a joint initiative with officials from the Department of Media, Department of Justice, journalists and media representatives and established the Media Engagement Group (MEG).

The MEG provides a 24/7 reporting mechanism whereby concerns by individual media personnel and/or media organisations can be raised by gatekeepers within media organisations with a centralised Garda point of contact (two Garda media engagement officers). This enables consistency in the Garda investigative response, the collection of Garda data and intelligence on threats to media personnel and any emerging trends, and the provision, if required, of personal safety advice.  

The MEG is co-chaired by a Garda Assistant Commissioner and the Garda Director of Communications, and includes representatives from national and local media organisations, the NUJ, relevant Government Departments, and Comisiún na Meán (Ireland’s new commission for regulating broadcasters and online media).

The MEG meets as a group on a quarterly basis to review incidents of note and the Garda response to same, emerging trends and issues, items of concerns for media personnel and organisations, and to review the MEG process. 


[1] EU-OSHA – European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Psychosocial risks and mental health at work. Available at:

[2] Eurofound – European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, “Psychosocial Risks”. Available at:

[4] Wikipedia Website, “History of Journalism”. Available at:

[5] Open Risk Manual, “International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO) Occupation Group 2542.1 Journalist”. Available at:

[6] National Union of Journalists (NUJ), “When are online ‘influencers’ journalists?”. Freelance newsletter April/May 2024.

[7] Grantford, 2024., ‘What are the top benefits of becoming a journalist’. Available at:

[8] National Union of Journalist (NUJ), The Journalist, “Finding your tribe”, April/ May 2024, pp.12-13.

[9] Eurostat, “How many journalists in the EU?”, 2019. Available at:

[10] EU-OSHA – European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, “Third European Survey of Enterprises on New and Emerging Risks 2019”. Available at:!/en/survey/overview/2019

[11] National Union of Journalists (NUJ). “Together, stronger: a collective approach to mental health”, 2023.

[12] National Union of Journalists (NUJ), DM2023: “Artificial Intelligence”, 2023. Available at:

[13] Rafter, Kevin & Wheatley, Dawn., “Irish Journalists at Work”, Dublin City University, Ireland, 2023. Available at:

[14] Feinstein, A., Owen, J., & Blaire N. “A hazardous profession: War, journalists, and psychopathy”, American Journal of Psychiatry,159 (9), 2002, pp. 1570-1575.

[15] Bolton, E., Elisa. “Journalists and PTSD”, US Department of Veteran Affairs, 2023: Available at :

[16] PersVeilig, “Aggression and threats against journalists survey 2021”, Holland, 2021. Available at :

[17] National Union of Journalists (NUJ), “NUJ Members’ Safety Survey 2020”.  Available at:

[18] PersVeilig , “Security for Dutch media’, female journalists and security survey 2022”, Holland, 2022,  Available at:

[20] OSHwiki, “Psychosocial issues”. Available at:

[21] EU - OSHA, 2018. “Guide for assessing the quality of risk assessments and risk management measures with regard to prevention of psychosocial risks”, 2018. Available at:

[22] Health and Safety Executive (HSE) United Kingdom, “Tackling Work Related Stress using the Management Standards Approach”, 2019.  Available at:

[23] Eurofound – European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions,  “Working conditions and sustainable work - Psychosocial risks to workers’ well-being: Lessons from the Covid-19 pandemic”, 2023. Available at:

[24] American Psychological Association, “Occupational Stress and Employee Control”, 2003. Available at:

[25] Kumar, Sunil, R., “Trust in Workplace: A conceptual study”. Journal of General Management Research, 10, 1, 2023, pp 38-58. Available at:

[26] National Union of Journalists (NUJ), “TUC analysis finds Black and Minority Ethnic workers are more likely to be unemployed than white workers”, 2023. Available at :

[27] Eurofound, “Workplace bullying, harassment and cyberbullying: are regulations and policies fit for purpose?”, 2024. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg.

[28] EU-OSHA - European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, FACTS, “Bullying at Work”, 2002. Available at:

[29] EU-OSHA - European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, “Remote and hybrid work: managing safety and health anywhere”, 2024.  Available at:

[30] EU-OSHA - European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, “Regulating telework in a post-Covid-19 Europe: recent developments”, 2023. Available at:

[31] Eurofound – European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, “Right to Disconnect”, 2021.  Available at:

[32] Eurofound – European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, “Right to disconnect: Implementation and impact at company level”, 2023. Available at:

[33] Workplace Relations Commission, “Code of Practice for Employers and Employees on the Right to Disconnect”, 2023, Dublin, Ireland. Available at:

[35] International Federation of Journalists (IFJ), “Ukraine: In times of war, journalists become targets of information attacks”, 2024. Available at:

Further reading

Psychosocial risks and work-related stress: risk assessment :

Managing stress and anxiety diary: a template for use by journalists to record what the issue is, how it is impacting them, and what they can do. Available at:

Post-traumatic stress disorder training: to help journalist minimise the risks they encounter from conflict zones to the cyber battlefront, STORYSMART is a journalist safety and security training from the NUJ and Google on cyber hazards, psychological trauma, field injuries, cyber hazards. Available at:

Trauma Reporting training: workplace and freelances Rory Peck Trust Trauma informed training for freelances. Available at

Technical and non-technical training: The National Union of Journalists (NUJ) provide a range of free training options for members, ranging from technical and soft skills. Available at:

Connecting with others: Freelancer Magazine in the UK has four free virtual co-working sessions per week and a free newsletter called the Dunker. Available at: Other communities include:,, and

The National Union of Journalists (NUJ) (UK and Ireland) hold online and in person training and networking events, where members can meet, exchange contact details and connect with others, website:

The European Federation of Journalists is the largest organisation of journalists in Europe, with members in 45 countries, website:

The International Federation of Journalist (IFJ) is the world’s largest organisation of journalists, from more than 140 countries, website:

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Sarah Copsey