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Stoffenmanager® ( is a knowledge-based platform aimed at reducing exposure risks to hazardous substances and biological agents in the workplace. The tool consists of modules for conducting a risk assessment such as control banding, quantitative exposure assessment and REACH worker exposure assessment. In addition to these modules, Stoffenmanager® offers the facility to register hazardous substances as well as create and export workplace instruction cards. It is available in Danish, Dutch, English, French, German, Finnish, Italian, Swedish, Polish, Portuguese and Spanish. Recently the development of a Biological Agents Control Banding module has started.

Stoffenmanager® Basic can be used on the internet free of charge and is intended in particular to support SMEs in performing risk assessments. Up to 35 products and risk assessments can be saved online. Besides the free Stoffenmanager® version, three fee-based licences, namely Stoffenmanager® Premium, Stoffenmanager® Risk+ and Stoffenmanager® Product+ are available. Stoffenmanager® provides the users with quality assurance and a guarantee for the future business continuity. This is achieved by (1) applying a “freemium business model”, which guarantees the long-term sustainability of the instrument, (2) providing support, coaching and training, which are necessary to avoid making errors when applying Stoffenmanager® and (3) using a validated tool embedded in a community platform, which supports companies in organising and structuring their chemical and biological agents risk management in a business-like manner. 

Developed by Arbo Unie, Beco (currently EY Nederland LLP) and TNO in 2003 by order of the Dutch Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment and brought to the market in 2014 by Cosanta B.V., Stoffenmanager® has been a reliable solution for working safely and healthily with hazardous substances for almost 20 years. Cosanta B.V. is the legal owner of the online tool Stoffenmanager®.

The development of Stoffenmanager® is driven by the  users for the tool’s functionalities and by the International Scientific Advisory Board (ISAB) for the scientific developments and regulatory compliance. The ISAB members are the Austrian AUVA (Social Accident Insurance), Austria, Central Institute for Labour Protection - National Research Institute (CIOP-PIB), Poland, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH), Finland, Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene of the National Taiwan University, Taiwan, Institute of Occupational Safety and Health of the German Social Accident Insurance (IFA), Germany, KU Leuven, Laboratory for Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Belgium, National Research Centre for the Working Environment (NFA), Denmark, National School of Public Health (ENSP-NOVA), Portugal, Research Institute TNO, The Netherlands, Risk Assessment for Human Health (RAHH)- the Environmental and Occupational Hygiene research group by the University of Insubria, Italy and the Spanish Association of Industrial Hygiene (AEHI), Spain.

The developers encourage partners and users to jointly innovate.

This article provides a detailed description of the Stoffenmanager® functionalities and background, relevant legislation, business model, development strategy and implementation at company and supply chain level.

Relevant legislation

Stoffenmanager® is in line with the current EU legislation on exposure to chemical and biological agents and chemical and biological safety. Although the Stoffenmanager® algorithms can be applied globally, the developers only guarantee that any change in EU legislation is taken into account in the continuous development of the instrument. Outside of the European Union, one has to check whether local legislation accepts the use of models to estimate exposure.

The chemical legislation directly applicable to Stoffenmanager® is:

Additional legislation (only latest list mentioned):

  • Directive 91/322/EEC - indicative limit values of 29 May 1991 on establishing indicative limit values by implementing Council Directive 80/1107/EEC on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to chemical, physical and biological agents at work.
  • Directive 2019/1831 - indicative occupational exposure limit values of 24 October 2019 establishing a fifth list of indicative occupational exposure limit values pursuant to Council Directive 98/24/EC and amending Commission Directive 2000/39/EC

The biological agents legislation directly applicable to Stoffenmanager® is:

  • Directive 2000/54/EC - biological agents at work of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 September 2000 on the protection of workers from risks related to exposure to biological agents at work (seventh individual directive within the meaning of Article 16(1) of Directive 89/391/EEC)

Stoffenmanager® Mission

The traditional management of chemical exposure in the workplace relies on technical experts to evaluate workplace hazards and risks, conduct exposure monitoring, compare with the existing occupational exposure limits (OELs) and recommend control measures. The continuous changes in regulations, working conditions and product composition create difficulties for companies to keep chemical management at a workplace up to date. Consulting external advisors is often expensive and does not provide a sustainable solution.

The COVID-19 pandemic reinforces the need to protect workers from exposure to biological agents. The impact of this pandemic highlights the importance of raising awareness and prioritizing the prevention of work-related diseases caused by biological agents at all levels. However, tools for inventorying hazards, performing risk assessment, implementing control measures, and anchoring the results are rare. This is a shortcoming, because already before the COVID-19 pandemic, biological agents were known to cause health problems.

The mission of Stoffenmanager® is to empower owners/operators to evaluate their own workplaces for hazards and risks and to focus resources on practical control solutions rather than expensive exposure measurements. This innovative approach allows the users of Stoffenmanager® to easily comply with their legal and moral obligations for a safe and healthy workplace. The Stoffenmanager® platform provides SMEs as well as large companies with the necessary knowledge, a validated and up-to-date tool and expert/technical support to implement  smart chemicals and biological agents management at their organisations.

Product/Service Description

Historical background

Stoffenmanager® has been available since October 2003 as a free web application. The instrument was developed by TNO, Arbo Unie and Beco (currently EY Nederland LLP) commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment (SAE). Between 2003-2007, the Dutch Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment carried out the 'VASt programme’ (in Dutch: Versterking Arbeidsomstandighedenbeleid Stoffen or 'Reinforcing the Working Conditions Policy on Hazardous Substances')[1],[2].  

The aim of the programme was to work together with the industry to strengthen the health policy on hazardous substances in order to embed responsibility in the chain and build a stronger knowledge infrastructure regarding the handling of chemicals. The programme's budget was EUR 12 million. The programme was aimed mainly at 25 high-risk sectors and product chains. Industry sectors and product chains were able to obtain financial support for action plans that were linked to the VASt programme and aimed at improvements. In addition, projects were carried out to provide the industry with effective instruments like the Stoffenmanager®, to assess and control exposure to hazardous substances. 

The VASt programme contributed mostly to opening up the available information and knowledge on working safely with hazardous substances, aiming especially at SMEs. Stoffenmanager® was the most successful instrument developed as part of the VASt programme. Over a period of 20 years, Stoffenmanager®  has become a mature and validated tool for the management of risks in the field of hazardous substances and is recognised as such by the Dutch Labour Inspectorate and ECHA (REACH). Apart from SME users with relatively few substances, Stoffenmanager® has also attracted larger organisations with a multiplicity of substances. In 2012 the Dutch Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment decided to stop funding the instrument. The government transferred the ownership of Stoffenmanager® to its developers, and gave them a transition period of two years to develop a sustainable business model for the instrument (see 4.2. Stoffenmanager® Business Model). During this period three fee-based licenses  were developed for more intensive users, offering a range of extra functionalities that enable working with Stoffenmanager® to be faster, easier and more efficient for a larger number of substances and risk assessments.

In May 2014 the developers established the private limited company Cosanta B.V., which is currently the legal owner of Stoffenmanager® and carries out all activities related to further development, training, helpdesk, communication and promotion of the tool.  With the establishment of Cosanta B.V., the developers have taken Stoffenmanager® to a next level – a continuous development platform. The table  below presents the historical development of  Stoffenmanager® from 2003 up to now.

Reading guide:

  • in the overview main changes per version are given.
  • not all minor version numbers are mentioned. From version 5.5 onwards, a full list of major and minor version patch-notes can be viewed.



Functionalities and algorithms



Demo version

October 2003

Register dangerous products

Inhalation risk assessment:

  • control banding
  • control measures
  • action plan

Workplace instruction cards

Storage dangerous products:

  • according to Dutch CPR 15-1 guideline

Le Feber M et al (2003) Model om inhalatoire blootstelling te schatten in het MKB (Dutch, not publicly available)


October 2004

Register dangerous products

Inhalation risk assessment:

  • control banding
  • control measures
  • action plan

Workplace instruction cards

Storage dangerous products:

  • according to Dutch CPR 15-1 guideline

Noy et al (2004) Ontwikkeling van een software instrument voor het opzetten van gevaarlijke stoffenbeleid door MKB bedrijven – Opleveringsrapportage (Dutch, not publicly available)


May 2005

Layout and hosting at

Bureau arboplatform Nederland (2005)

Tussenrapportage: ‘Beheer webapplicatie Stoffenmanager’ Periode december 2004 t/m juni 2005 (Dutch, not publicly available)


October 2005

Inhalation risk assessment:

  • split of risk assessment and action plan
  • calculation (combined) effect of control measures

Registration of CMR substances

Standard exchange format substance- and product data

Van der Schaaf et al (2005) Verslag van de ontwikkeling van Stoffenmanager Versie 2.0: januari-oktober 2005, TNO rapport (Dutch, not publicly available)


August 2007

Dermal risk assessment:

  • control banding
  • control measures
  • action plan

Explosion safety

assessment according to ATEX-137 legislation

PIMEX (Picture Mixed Exposure) movies which can be used to give insight into the impact of control measures.

TNO / Arbo Unie / BECO groep (2006) Functioneel ontwerp Huidmodule (Dutch, not publicly available)

Le Feber M et al (2006) Beschrijving van de integratie van Stoffenmanager met ROD Toolkit (generieke versie), NO rapport (Dutch, not publicly available)

BECO groep / Arbo Unie (2007) Functionele omschrijving ATEX module (Dutch, not publicly available)


October 2007

Inhalation risk assessment:

  • quantitative exposure assessment for solids

Storage dangerous products:

  • according to Dutch PGS 15: 2005 guideline

Tielemans E et al (2007) Stoffenmanager exposure model: development of a quantitatitve exposure model. TNO/ Arbo Unie report (Dutch, not publicly available)

Tielemans E et al23


May 2008

Inhalation risk assessment:

  • quantitative exposure assessment for liquids
  • calculation job daily average

Tielemans E et al (2007) Stoffenmanager exposure model: development of a quantitatitve exposure model. TNO/ Arbo Unie report (Dutch, not publicly available)


Marquart H et al4  


December 2009

Inhalation risk assessment, quantitative exposure assessment:

  • adaptation and split of algorithms
  • separate algorithms for high and low volatile liquids
  • separate algorithms for solids on abrasive and non-abrasive activities

Fransman W et al (2009) Modifications to the Stoffenmanager 4.0 inhalation model. TNO report.

Schinkel J et al3


June 2011

Dermal and inhalation risk assessment, control banding:

  • implementation CLP/EU-GHS (H- and P-statements)
  • CLP convertor to convert R-phrases into H-statements

Inhalation risk assessment, quantitative exposure assessment:

  • split immission parameter nimm in nimm x npbm
  • algorithm respirable dust for abrasive activities on stone

Inhalation risk assessment, Nano module:

  • control banding
  • control measures
  • action plan
  • factsheets


  • Finnish language added

BECO groep / TNO / Arbo Unie (2010) Functioneel ontwerp CLP/EU-GHS (Dutch, not publicly available)

Verbist KJM et al32

TNO / Arbo Unie / BECO groep (2011). Functioneel ontwerp Stoffenmanager® respirabel verspanend steen model 4.5: algoritme en blootstelling (Dutch, not publicly available)

Duuren-Stuurman B et al33


March 2013

Assessment REACH inhalation added

Cosanta (2013) Functioneel ontwerp Stoffenmanager® 5.0 (Dutch, not publicly available)


February 2015

Explosion safety:

  • adaptation algorithms according to changes in ATEX-137 legislation

Storage dangerous products:

  • adaptation algorithms according to changes in Dutch PGS 15 guideline



March 2016

Inhalation risk assessment, quantitative exposure assessment

  • adaptation time category

Assessment REACH inhalation:

  • adaptation time category

Cosanta (2016) Functioneel ontwerp Stoffenmanager® 6.3 (Dutch only, not publicly available)



October 2016

Inhalation risk assessment, quantitative exposure assessment:

  • determining the concentration per component in a powder mixture composed of one or more components is now possible.


International Scientific Advisory Board meeting September 2016

Cosanta (2016)

Functioneel ontwerp Stoffenmanager® 6.5 (Dutch, not publicly available)



May 2017

Dermal and inhalation risk assessment, control banding:

  • new hazard banding classes in line with GHS
  • replaces hazard banding classes according to COSHH Essentials in Stoffenmanager® versions 1.0 and later


Arnone M et al31

Marquart H et al4



November 2017

Storage dangerous products:

  • adaptation algorithms according to Dutch PGS 15: 2016 Version 1.0 guideline

PGS 15: 2016 versie 1.0


April 2018

Inhalation risk assessment – control banding and quantitative exposure assessment:

  • Respiratory Protection Equipment (RPE) list plus corresponding Assigned Protection Factors (APF) adapted according to NEN-EN 529:2005
  • new categories added
  • possibility to add own company specific RPE plus corresponding APF
  • replaces the list in Stoffenmanager® versions 1.0 and later

EN-NEN 529:2005 Respiratory protective devices - Recommendations for selection, use, care and maintenance - Guidance document


October 2019

  • save your measurement data in STEAMbase (SToffenmanager® Exposure And Modelling database) module
  • add job titles
  • add new product categories: abrasive activities with wood, stone, metal, plastic, glass, composite etc. and processes that release emissions, such as welding, soldering, cutting, and diesel engine emissions.



June 2020

Inhalation risk assessment, prioritisation and assessment:

  • possibility to perform risk assessments at different process temperatures

Cosanta (2020) Functioneel ontwerp Stoffenmanager® 8.3 (Dutch, not publicly available)

Stoffenmanager® Business Model & Development strategy

Stoffenmanager® applies a “freemium business model”. Freemium means that in addition to the free–of-charge Basic version and support there are payable services such as the fee-based versions of Stoffenmanager®, consultancy and training on implementation at both company and supply chain level.

Stoffenmanager® provides users with quality assurance and a guarantee for future business continuity by (1) applying the “freemium business model”, which guarantees the long-term sustainability of the instrument, (2) providing support, coaching and training, which are necessary to avoid making errors when applying Stoffenmanager® and (3) using a validated tool embedded in a community platform, which supports companies in organising and structuring their chemical risk management in a business-like manner.  Stoffenmanager® is committed to assuring that the functionalities in are developed according to user requirements and wishes, and therefore encourages, joint innovation with the Stoffenmanager® users.

The Stoffenmanager® business model is a good example of how governmental investment can be multiplied and sustained in the long term. It is in line with the European Exposure Science Strategy 2020-2030[3].

Figure 1 Model & tool development: relationships between stakeholders

Model & tool development: relationships between stakeholders
Source: Schlüter, U. et al[3].

There are numerous examples of instruments developed as part of governmental programmes whose development and use have declined after the funding has stopped. Stoffenmanager® is not one of them. It  provides support free of charge for small and medium-sized companies in performing risk assessments and in increasing their knowledge regarding the handling of chemicals. At the same time, using resources from the payable services assures ongoing functional and scientific development, regulatory compliance and, therefore, the long-term sustainability of the instrument.

Key features  

Key functionalities and modules

The key functionalities of Stoffenmanager® are:

  • Management of the hazardous substances register including import and export possibilities for example of product information via XML and export to Excel
  • Management of CMR substances including the CMR exposure register
  • Dashboard presenting key figures and risks in graphical form
  • Risk prioritisation for inhalation and skin exposure
  • Quantitative inhalation exposure assessment and comparison with limit values
  • Quantitative calculation of the effect of control measures
  • Creating own product fields and adding measurements
  • Possibilities to archive inactive products and risk assessments
  • Generation of Action Plans
  • Generation of Workplace Instruction Cards
  • Generation of reports and overviews in Word and Excel
  • Multiple users with different rights and roles
  • Multi-language – Danish, Dutch, English, German, Finnish, Italian, Swedish,  Polish, Portuguese, Spanish and French.

Stoffenmanager® has the following modules:

  • Control Banding. Stoffenmanager® was initially developed as a tool for SMEs to prioritise their health risks of working with hazardous products in the working place and to determine effective control measures. To arrive at a risk priority Stoffenmanager® combines the hazard information of a product with an estimate of exposure by inhalation or skin contact. If risks are identified, control measures can be selected. The risk assessments can be opened as a report and saved to the computer. An Action Plan shows the selected control measures. PIMEX movies and workplace instruction cards can be used for information exchange and risk communication. The Report Dangerous Substances generates an overview of all dangerous products that are being used within the company. In addition to this, a special CMR (carcinogenic, mutagenic and reprotoxic substances) registration is available. Here mandatory information can be registered on the use of these substances.
  • Quantitative Exposure Assessment. Stoffenmanager® contains a quantified and validated exposure module to estimate exposure to (mixtures of) powders and vapours in mg/m3. Stoffenmanager® estimates the worst-case task concentration, the so called 90-percentile. Furthermore, other percentiles of the exposure distribution are available (e.g. 50, 75 or 95-percentile). The exposure during the task can be compared with an occupational exposure limit (OEL). Subsequently, the daily average concentration can be calculated for one or more tasks. This outcome can also be compared with an OEL. If risks are identified, control measures can be selected. The risk assessments can be opened as a report and saved to the computer. An Action Plan shows the selected control measures.
  • REACH Worker exposure. Stoffenmanager® contains a REACH exposure module to quantitatively estimate exposure by inhalation. This is the same model as the quantitative exposure assessment module but specified for REACH whereby calculations are done for substances instead of mixtures. Stoffenmanager® presents the complete exposure distribution and the corresponding percentiles. The exposure estimate can be compared with the DNEL of the substance. This module is only available in the Premium version. Stoffenmanager ® is included in the official REACH Guidance (R.14) document as a recommended tool, meaning the European Commission officially recognises Stoffenmanager® as an instrument to comply with the REACH regulation.
  • Nano module. This is a separate module to qualitatively assess the risks of working with manufactured nano-objects. Just as in the control banding module, hazard properties and information on exposure are combined to derive a risk score. Risk management measures can be selected to control exposure.
  • STEAMbase: SToffenmanager® Exposure And Modelling database assists you to enter measurement data in a standardized way. 
  • PGS-15. This is a special module for the chemical storage management in accordance with the Dutch PGS-15 guideline. This module is only available in Dutch and in the Premium version. 
  • ATEX. This is a module for the assessment of workplace explosion safety in accordance with the European ATEX guidelines. This module is only available in Dutch and in the Premium version.

Stoffenmanager® licenses

Four  different licence types  for the use of the Stoffenmanager® tool are offered: Stoffenmanager® Premium, Stoffenmanager® Risk+, Stoffenmanager® Product+ and the free starter version Stoffenmanager® Basic. On top additional specific modules can be added to the licence. This means that there is always a suitable solution for every company, be it an SME or a multinational. This allows a user to map out the risks and take adequate protective measures.

A management dashboard with key figures and risks graphically explained is provided. These key figures prove to be powerful drivers in companies’ management reviews making the management board of a company more aware of occupational health risks by turning technical occupational expert language into a business language that really matters (see Figure 2).

Figure 2: Stoffenmanager® Management Dashboard

Stoffenmanager Management Dashboard
Source: Stoffenmanager® website

Validation and comparison with other tools


Stoffenmanager® is validated based on more than 7000 measurements and is (inter)nationally recognised by local governments and the EU[4],[5],[6],[7],[8],[9],[10],[11],[12],[13],[14],[15],[16],[17],[18]. With Stoffenmanager® you run through the four steps of the Self-inspection Tool on Hazardous Substances of the Dutch Ministry SZW. Stoffenmanager® is mentioned in the REACH R.14 Guidance of the European Chemicals Agency. Although Stoffenmanager® can be applied worldwide, the developers can only guarantee that changes in EU and/or Dutch legislation will be taken into account in the development of the tool. Outside the EU it is the user's responsibility to check if local legislation accepts the use of Stoffenmanager® [19].


Stoffenmanager® develops continuously. Not only functionalities are improved or extended but also the underlying algorithms.


Stoffenmanager® version 7.0 and later classifies the hazards of a product based on the H-phrases as described in Arnone et al31.The classification in earlier versions was based on COSHH Essentials.

The inhalation exposure model of Stoffenmanager® is based on the source-receptor approach of Cherrie and Schneider[20] and Marquart et al7. Subsequent modifications to the model are available to authorities and scientific partners under a non-disclosure  agreement. The model for estimating skin exposure is based on the RISKOFDERM Toolkit3.


The quantification of the inhalation exposure model of Stoffenmanager® version 3.0 and 3.5 is described in Tielemans et al[21]. A further refinement of the model (Stoffenmanager® version 4.0) based on about 1000 measurements is published in Schinkel et al7. The authors conclude that the 90-percentile estimate is sufficiently conservative.

Subsequent versions of Stoffenmanager® were further validated and/or compared with other tools in various studies. Meanwhile the validation of the tool is based on more than 7000 measurements. From these studies it can be concluded that Stoffenmanager® is the most balanced, robust and sufficiently conservative tool. With the exception that the exposure to low volatile compounds, released as a result of spraying activities taking place outside without local exhaust ventilation (aerosol formation - PROC11), might be underestimated (based on Tongeren van et al[22]).

Figure 3 Applicability domain for the quantitative inhalation exposure model

Applicability domain for the quantitative inhalation exposure model
Source: Stoffenmanager® website

Implementation at company and supply chain level

In order to facilitate the implementation in companies, the Stoffenmanager® platform provides information, technical support and access to experts. Significant efforts have been put into Stoffenmanager® to design a user-friendly interface]. However, 20   years of experience with Stoffenmanager® has shown that just ‘offering’ a risk assessment and chemicals management instrument, without providing active support, does not automatically result in its active and proper use by companies and experts. This is proven by numerous research studies on the evaluation of the implementation of Stoffenmanager® and similar instruments in companies[23],[24],[25],[26],[27],[28],[29],[30]. Results from research and the developers’ experience suggests that providing guidance, explanation and training prior to using exposure assessment tools is crucial for their successful implementation at company level and in the supply chain. Moreover, users must understand the limitations of the tools in terms of applicability and output, which is why reading the guidance and support material is regarded essential[29],[30]. Therefore, the Stoffenmanager® experts have developed a structured approach to supporting the users by providing a free information and complimentary webinars and fee-based tailor-made consultancy and training to assist companies to improve their chemical risk management, and to avoid making mistakes when using and applying Stoffenmanager®.

The above-mentioned approach is based on a 2.5-year intervention project undertaken by the developers TNO and Arbo Unie in 2012-2014. Within the project, active support was provided to a group of 45 participating companies. The project aimed at improving the implementation of Stoffenmanager® as well as chemical risk management in a wider sense. In order to get clues to enable the development of a tailored support to companies willing to optimise chemicals’ management, the central research question addressed within the framework of this project was: “Which characteristics of the tool Stoffenmanager® itself, of the intended user and of the intended user’s organisation determine the success or failure of its active and successful implementation and proper use?”[29].

The Stoffenmanager® experts. are using a 6-phase implementation evolutionary ladder to assess the companies’ progress in using Stoffenmanager® as a tool in improving substance management. The implementation ladder is based on the above-mentioned project and provides a means to assess progress in a well-structured manner and as objectively as possible (see Figure 4).

 Figure 4: Stoffenmanager® Implementation evolutionary ladder

Stoffenmanager Implementation evolutionary ladder
 Source: “Provided by the authors” based on[29].

The conclusion made as a result of applying the above approach are[29] [experience Stoffenmanager® developers]:

  • Training and coaching help companies to establish smart chemical management
  • Active training and coaching help to avoid making mistakes when using and applying Stoffenmanager®
  • Use of validated tools embedded in an online platform supports companies to organise and structure their chemical risk management in a business-like manner
  • Much depends on motivated occupational health and safety professionals, management support and willingness to invest time and resources.

In addition, Stoffenmanager® continuously developing to be applied at a supply chain level and to be used for corporate social responsibility (CSR) reporting. Training and coaching help companies apply the instrument at this level too.



[1] Hollander, A., Visser, R., Jongen, M., Occupational health and safety prevention programmes in the Netherlands: the VASt programme, TNO Quality of Working Life, 18 pp. Unpublished/In press.

[2] Hollander, A., The VAST Programme – A practical example how to improve the handling of chemicals in SMEs, Presentation at the EU-OSHA seminar 'Chemical substances at work: facing up to the challenges' (2009) Available at:

[3] Schlüter, U., Meyer J., Ahrens A., Borghi F., Clerc F., Delmaar C., Di Guardo A., Dudzina T., Fantke P., Fransman W.,  Hahn S., Heussen H., Jung C., Koivisto J., Koppisch D., Paini A., Savic N., Spinazzè A., Zare Jeddi M., von Goetz N. (2022) Exposure modelling in Europe: how to pave the road for the future as part of the European Exposure Science Strategy 2020–2030, J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol,

[4]  Cherrie J.W., Fransman W., Heussen G.A.H., Koppisch D., Jensen K.A. (2020) Exposure Models for REACH and Occupational Safety and Health Regulations, Int J Environ Res Public Health, 17,, 383.

[5] Fransman W., Arnone M., Borghi F., Cattaneo A., Cavallo D.W., Cherrie J.W., Franken R., Galea K.S., van der Haar R., Heussen G.A.H., Jensen K.A., Koponen M., Koppisch D., Kromhout H., Luo Y-S, McNally K., Säämänen A., Spinazzè A., van Tongeren M., Vanoirbeek J., Verpaele S., Vetter D., Viegas S., Warren N.(2022) Response Letter to Koivisto et al. ‘Evaluating the Theoretical Background of STOFFENMANAGER® and the Advanced REACH Tool’, Annals of Work Exposures and Health, wxac001.

[6] Huang S-Z., Wu K-Y. (2019) Health Risk Assessment of Photoresists Used in an Optoelectronic Semiconductor Factory. Risk Analysis, 39, 2625-2639.

[7] Jankowska A., Czerczak S., Kucharska M., Wesołowski W., Maciaszek P., Kupczewska-Dobecka. M.  (2015) Application of predictive models for estimation of health care workers exposure to sevoflurane, International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 21, 471-479.

[8] Koppisch D., Schinkel J., Gabriel S., Fransman F., and Tielemans E. (2012) Use of the MEGA exposure database for the validation of the Stoffenmanager model. Ann Occup Hyg, 56, 426-39.

[9] Lamb J., Hesse S., Miller B.G., MacCalman L., Schroeder K., Cherrie J. and van Tongeren M. (2015), “Evaluation of Tier 1 Exposure Assessment Models under REACH (eteam) Project-Final Overall Project Summary Report, [Online]. Available:

[10] Landberg H.E., Berg P., Andersson L., Bergendorf U., Karlsson J., Westberg H. and Tinnerberg H (2015) Comparison and Evaluation of Multiple Users’ Usage of the Exposure and Risk Tool: Stoffenmanager 5.1., Ann Occup Hyg, 59, 821-835.

[11] Landberg H.E., Axmon A., Westberg H., Tinnerberg H. (2017) A Study of the Validity of Two Exposure Assessment Tools: Stoffenmanager and the Advanced REACH Tool, Annals of Work Exposures and Health, 61, 575–588.

[12] Lee E.G, Lamb J., Savic N., Basinas I., Gasic B, Jung C., Kashon M.L., Kim J., Tischer M., van Tongeren M., Vernez D.,  Harper M. (2019) Evaluation of Exposure Assessment Tools under REACH: Part II—Higher Tier Tools, Annals of Work Exposures and Health, 63,230–241.

[13] Lee S., Lee K., Kim H. (2019) Comparison of Quantitative Exposure Models for Occupational Exposure to Organic Solvents in Korea, Annals of Work Exposures and Health, 63,197–217.

[14] Ribalta C., López-Lilao A., Estupiñá S., Fonseca A.S., Tobíasa A., García-Cobos A., Minguillóna M.C.,  Monfort E., Viana M. (2019) Health risk assessment from exposure to particles during packing in working environments, Science of The Total Environment, 671, 474-487.

[15] Riedmann R., Gasic B. and Vernez D. (2015) Sensitivity Analysis, Dominant Factors, and Robustness of the ECETOC TRA v3, Stofenmanager 4.5, and ART 1.5 Occupational Exposure Models, Risk Analysis, Risk Analysis, 35, 211-25.

[16] Spinazzè A., Lunghini F., Campagnolo D., Rovelli S, Locatelli M., Cattaneo A., Cavallo D.M. (2017) Accuracy Evaluation of Three Modelling Tools for Occupational Exposure Assessment, Annals of Work Exposures and Health, 3, 284–298.

[17] Spinazzè A., Borghi F., Campagnolo D., Rovelli S., Keller M., Fanti G., Cattaneo A., Cavallo D.M. (2019) How to Obtain a Reliable Estimate of Occupational Exposure? Review and Discussion of Models’ Reliability, Int J Environ Res Public Health, 16, 2764.

[18] Vink S.R., Mikker J., Bouwman T., Marquart H., Kroese E.D. (2010) Use of read across and tiered exposure assessment in risk assessment under REACH - A case study on a phase-in substance, Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 58, 64-71.

[19] ECHA (2016), REACH Guidance on Information Requirements and CSA, Chapter R.14 Occupational Exposure Estimation.

[20] Cherrie J.W., Schneider T. (1999), Validation of a New Method for Structured Subjective Assessment of Past Concentrations, The Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 43, 235–245.

[21] Tielemans E., Noy D., Schinkel J., Heussen H., van der Schaaf D., West J. and Fransman W (2008) Stoffenmanager exposure model: development of a quantitative algorithm, Ann Occup Hyg, 52, 443-454.

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Erika Ustailieva