Both nationally and internationally, a series of dramatic events (the explosion of a fireworks plant in Enschede in 2000, a major fire in a Volendam café in 2001, the explosion of an ammonium-nitrate plant in Toulouse in 2001, and the WTC assault in New York in 2001) has led to an increased focus on safety in general and occupational safety and safety management in particular. Paradoxically, however, there are indications that the number of (serious) accidents in the Netherlands has risen in the past few years (Dutch Lower Chamber 2001- 2002a, b, c; Labour Inspectorate, 2002; Labour Inspectorate 2003a, 2003b). Moreover, important safety concepts such as control, safety modelling, prediction and quantification of risks, accepted risk levels, accident causation and safety management systems seem to be losing some of their added value due to increasing uncertainties in and volatility of the situation in which they are used; adaptation may be needed to renew their added value. At the same time, concepts like safety behaviour and safety culture seem to be coming more to the fore as they gain increasing relevance. However, if these concepts are to become more effective in complex situations, they need further development too.