The White Paper (2001) proposed to revitalise the railways in the European Union (EU). The European Interstate Rail Network is made up of infrastructure in all the member states and is interconnected within Europe and to Border States. This network exhibits a low interoperability level: infrastructure, rolling stock, operating procedures and safety are not currently standardised. This situation is due to the fact that Europe comprises different member states where railways have been developed in different historical, geographical, and cultural environments. The safety culture in different member countries is also particularly variable.